تأثیر جنسیت بر درک نوای عاطفی گفتار در زبان فارسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکتری تخصصی زبان‌شناسی شناختی، گروه زبان های احساس دانشگاه آزاد برلین

چکیده

لازمة تعامل اجتماعیمؤثر پردازش ودرک صحیحنوای عاطفی گفتار گوینده است. گفتار عاطفی، که حاوی اطلاعات زیادی دربارة احساسات و مقاصد اجتماعی گوینده است،خود از تفاوت‌هایی فردی-جامعه‌شناختی همچون سن و جنس تاثیر می‌پذیرد که از این میان نقش جنسیت به اندازة کافی مطالعه نشده و هنوز محل بحث است. همچنین معدودمطالعات انجام‌شده، تنها عملکرد گویشورانزبان‏های دارای وزن تکیه‌ای (همچون آلمانیو انگلیسی)را بررسی کرده‏اند. اما از آنجا کهنوای عاطفی گفتار، خود، متاثر از شاخصه‌هایزبان-‌ویژه، مانند تقسیم وزنیِ زمان، است و این شاخصه زبان‌های دارای وزن تکیه‌ای را از زبان‌های دارای وزن هجایی تفکیک می‌کند نگارنده بر آن شد تا قابلیت کاربرد نتایج این تحقیقات را در زبان‏هایی که تقسیم زمانی متفاوتی دارد بررسی کند. بنابراین، پژوهش حاضر نقش جنسیت را در تشخیص و درک نوایعاطفی گفتار در زبان فارسی، به عنوان زبانی که وزن هجایی دارد و تقسیموزنی-زمانیِ آنمتفاوت است، مورد مطالعه قرار می‌دهد. بدین منظور در یک آزمایش رفتاری، از66 گویشور فارسی‌زبان خواسته شد تا نوایعاطفی مجموعه‌ای از متون صوتی نمایشنامه‌های معتبر را تشخیص‌دهند. این متون حاوی مجموعه جملاتی بود که واژگان موجود در آن‌ها به لحاظ محتوایی خنثی بودند و در پنج حالت عاطفی خشم، تنفر، ترس، شادی و غم توسطیک بازیگر خانم و یک بازیگرآقااجرا شده بودند. داده‌های این آزمونبا مدل رگرسیون لجستیکبررسی شدندو به طور کلی، نتایج نشان می‌دهند که: ۱) میزان تشخیص نوای عاطفی گفتار به صورت معناداری با جنسیتشنونده ارتباط دارد؛ بدین معنا که آزمودنی‌های مؤنث در مقایسه با آزمودنی‌های مذکرتوانمندی بیشتری در تشخیص تمامی مقوله‏های عاطفی گفتار دارند؛ ۲)تقسیم وزنی زمان (یعنی‏ وزن تکیه‌ای در مقابل وزن هجایی) بر تشخیص نوای عاطفی گفتار تاثیری ندارد.

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